Abstract: Extreme programming is one of the most effective and commonly used agile development methodology among software development methodologies. But in extreme programming, quality activities were executed consecutively along with the functional requirements. It reduces the rapidity in continuous iterations and makes inverse relation between quality and agility. Agile development worked with the small scale projects along with few experts team but not for large project. It could not be implemented properly due to scaling and estimation problem. Extreme programming (XP) with enhancing capabilities enabled agile methods to work efficiently for large scale organizations. XP was best suitable to be documentation and easier to implement. System engineering approach was considered as incremental change related to coding. Extreme programming was enabling hundreds of programmers and software engineers to work on large projects using agile development methodologies.
Keywords: Estimation, Scaling, Extreme Programming, Hierarchical approach, Process Measurement
Author: Muhammad Zeeshan Ali
Abstract: The idea behind this study is to expose the factors which have greater influence on customer buying behavior while making purchase decision through billboard advertisement. Here, in this study it is finally concluded after applying correlation and regression techniques that billboard location and catching billboards have greater influence on customer buying behavior. Design/methodology: this study is conducted on the students of IUB and sample size of 259 questionnaires was filled to find out the impact of billboard advertisement on their buying behavior. In this study reliability, correlation and regression techniques are applied. Findings: it is concluded that billboard advertisement influences the consumer buying behavior more when it is attractive to see, easy to understand and it is properly placed means delivering its messages to the right people.
Keywords: Advertisement, Outdoor advertisement, Billboard advertisement, Catching billboards.
Authors: Rizwana Iqbal & Sana Batool
Abstract: Purpose: The main intention to write this paper is to determine the impact of green advertising on customer purchase behavior and analysis the affect of Ecoliteracy and environmental concern on consumer buying behavior. Methodology/Approach: we collect primary data the target population for the study was the undergraduate, graduate and post graduate students of Islamia University Bahawalpur Pakistan. Sample size was of 384 students. We apply co-relation and regression test techniques to find out consumers responses. The finding of our research shows that consumer buying behavior is influenced by environmental concern and Eco-literacy. Findings: The findings of our research shows that consumer buying behavior is influenced by environmental concerns and Ecoliteracy It means those consumers who have knowledge about environmental issues and those who are more concerned about environmental betterment will positively respond toward green advertising. Future Implications and limitations: The study will be helpful for creating awareness in people about green advertising and convincing them to purchase those products that are beneficial for themselves and for society as well. our sample size is only students of Islamia university due to time constraints but ,if in future general public is considered as sample size then it will positively contribute for the betterment of the society by creating conciseness about environmental issues.
Keywords: Green advertising, Environmental friendly, Consumer purchase behavior, Environmental concerns, Eco-literacy
Authors: Sana Batool & Rizwana Iqbal
Abstract: The present study was conducted to identify emotional and behavioral disturbances among the News Reporters covering Traumatic events. In this study, a sample of 200 News Reporters belonging to the national and the local news agencies were selected from Rawalpindi and Islamabad who has covered any traumatic event in the past one year. Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (RISB) and Impact of Event Scale interpretations were used to assess variety of emotional and behavioral patterns of News Reporters. Results showed that some of the frequent emotional/behavioral reactions exhibited by individuals like withdrawal, anxiety\depression, aggression, hyperarousal and avoidance behavior. Whereas gender based comparisons indicated that there is no significant gender difference in the News Reporters in manifestations of behavioral and emotional disturbances. It is concluded that significant negative emotional and behavioral reactions are exhibited by the News Reporters who cover traumatic events. The study identifies the negative emotional and behavioral reactions towards trauma, which can be helpful for identifying problematic area for counseling and therapeutic interventions for these News Reporters.
Keywords: Behavioral Disturbances, Emotional Disturbances, News Reporters, Traumatic Events, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Authors: Misbah Shahzadi & Mahwish Rabia
Abstract: The description is not new in Persian poetry and has a special place in the works of famous poets, including Nezami. This study showed that Nezami used many types of adjectives in Makhzan-al-Asrar. In its simplest form, he used image; this indicates the high imaging and imagination power of poet. However, this study aimed to use experts’ adjective definitions to determine them in this work and classify them as simple, derivative, compound, and derivative-compound.
Keywords: Persian poetry ,Nezami, adjectives, imagination power.
Authors: Parivash Jamshidi (M.A)